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JAGR - Journal of Applied Global Research
Volume: 1, Issue: 3
Authors can view an Abstract, and order a Full Article, which is in the Electronic Copy of the Journal. Please send an email request to obtain the Journal chief-editor@intellectbase.org.
The Gluon Emission Model (GEM), which accurately describes the widths of all known vector mesons, is a model for vector meson production in which vector mesons arise by virtue of quark spin-flip with accompanying gluon emission. Since the spin of the K*(892) meson is unity, application of GEM towards the K*(892), long thought to be an excited state of the kaon, is effected for purposes of ascertaining the likelihood that it may actually be itself a vector meson. The current Meson Table published by the Particle Data Group has the K*(892) listed as a two-component system - the uncharged K*(892)^{o} with mass = 896 Mev and width = 50.8 Mev and the charged K*(892)^{+} with mass = 892 Mev and width = 50.7 Mev. Surprisingly, GEM indicates that the K*(892) acts as a standard vector meson stemming from a three-quark base formed by the up (u), down (d), and strange(s) quarks. Specifically, based upon width calculations through the use of GEM associated with various possibilities as to the K*(892)'s construction, the K*(892) is best represented as a linear combination, _{X}, of quark/anti-quark states given by _{X} = c(uu* + dd* + ss*), where c = 1/√ 3 and the "*" indicates the relevant anti-quark in the expression for _{X}. For such construction GEM indicates a theoretical width for each mode of the K*(892) (charged and neutral) as virtually a match to published experimental determinations of same.
Keywords: Gluon Emission Model; K*(892); Vector Mesons; Isospin = 1/2; Quark Spin-Flip.
Based on Hamilton's development of the Lagrangian to study the action of a moving mass in a uniform gravitational field, we use classical physics to develop a Lagrangian to study the action of a solitary propagating electric cardiac pulse. In this paper, the action of the system is defined to be the spatial integral of the difference in kinetic and potential energies of the propagating electric pulse. One result of this study reveals that the numerical solution of a propagating cardiac pulse equation is an extremal for the action of the propagating pulse. In the case for two-dimensional wave propagation, by satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equation we derived a relation for wave speed dependence on propagation direction and the integral of the ionic membrane current.
Energy Consumption and Quality of Service (QoS) are two primary concerns in the development of today's pervasive computing systems. In recent years, quite a lot research work has been done in energy-aware real-time scheduling for soft real-time systems with QoS requirements. In this paper, we compare several key algorithms that can save energy while meeting the QoS requirements. The QoS requirements are deterministically quantified with the (m, k)-constraints, which require that at least m out of any k consecutive jobs of a task meet their deadlines. We also propose an online DVS scheduling algorithm to schedule the jobs adaptively with the best effort of reducing energy consumption while meeting the (m,k)-constraints. We conducted extensive simulations to compare the energy efficiency and QoS performance of all the different approaches.
The purpose of this work involved investigating the most relevant aspects of the anaerobic treatment for handling domestic wastes. Optimization of COD and BOD removal rates in the treatment system is necessary to evaluate the feasibility of the anaerobic technology for the treatment of mainly domestic wastewater, using the UASB system. Improvements to the UASB system's performance by installing baffles, media and a distribution mechanism were investigated, also the effectiveness of increasing the depth of media on the top part of the UASB reactor from 3.8 cm to 38 cm. The current research is based on adding new treatment elements, including baffles and media, to UASB treatment reactor designated as (B). Reactor (R) is the control system, which did not have the distribution system, baffles, and media, and considered the reference for reactor (B). Operational parameters for both reactors were measured. The parameters used are divided into the control parameters which are hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR), and temperature (T), and the main operational parameters, including influent and effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand concentrations (BOD), and sludge retention time (SRT), pH, total suspended solid (TSS), and volatile suspended solid (VSS). These parameters impact the UASB loading potentials and its resulting performance during acclimation/ start up and stabilization for the different phases. For phase 1 the reactor (B) removal of COD, BOD, TSS, and VSS was about 5-8 % more than in reactor (R). However in Phase 2 following reactor (B) modification, the relative percent removal of COD, BOD, TSS and VSS increased by about 8-12 %.
Keywords: UASB, Anaerobic Treatment, Reference Reactor(R), Modifications Reactor (B).
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mammalian hippocampus has been intensely studied in efforts to elucidate the neural basis for learning and memory. Although much has been learned in recent years about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of LTP, the consequences of LTP for neural circuit function are poorly understood. Here, we report the use of voltage imaging to investigate the spatial distribution of LTP in the rat dentate gyrus (DG). This method permits the visualization of LTP over a wide area so that regional variations can be seen. Using the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline or SR95531 (gabazine) to block inhibitory synaptic transmission, LTP was induced by applying theta bursts. The spatial maps of responses to stimulation appeared nonuniform, with greater responses in the lower blade of the DG than in the upper blade. The spatial maps of LTP showed the same nonuniformity, but after normalizing responses to their initial pre-induction levels, the LTP of responses in the upper and lower blades were not significantly different. To test the role of the perforant path in the induction of LTP, a cut was made in the molecular layer of the DG. Response magnitudes were weaker compared to uncut control slices, but LTP was seen on both sides of the cut. This suggests that an intact perforant path is not essential for LTP in the DG. Future experiments will evaluate how the perforant path and other elements of the circuitry of the DG contribute to LTP.
Keywords: Long-Term Potentiation, Dentate Gyrus, Hippocampus, Voltage Imaging.
If a, b are two circles, then a circle chain on a , b is a sequence of circles with the property that each circle meets its predecessor in two points, one on a and one on b. In a closed circle chain the first and last circle in the sequence are similarly joined. Each circle in a circle chain is called a link, and the number of links in a circle chain is its length. If adjacent links meet at points P, Q, then the line PQ is called an axis of the circle chain. The circles a, b are called tracks. Suppose X, Y, Z, W are the four contact points of a link s in a circle chain ? listed in order of appearance as the link is traversed clockwise with X, Y on a and Z, W on b. There are two ways in which s can be joined to its neighbors in ?, in one way XW and YZ are axes of ?, and these are called lateral axes. The other possibility is that XZ and YW are axes of ?, and in this case we call them diagonal axes. If every axis of ? is lateral then we call ? a regular circle chain, and if every axis is diagonal then we call ? a twisted chain. A mixed circle chain is one in which both types of axes appear. We are especially concerned with closed circle chains, specifically how they can be constructed and what geometric properties they possess.
Keywords: Circles; Chains; Homothety; Inversion; Radical Center.
The Gluon Emission Model (GEM), which has been shown to be able to accurately determine the widths of all known vector mesons in their ground states, to enable the determination of new details governing the construction and decay of the K*(892), the J(3097), and the ?(2S), and, as well, furnish a reliable basis for determination of the strong coupling parameter, 's, is employed in modified form in conjunction with the recently published Chaos Theory Mapping Model (CTMM), which concerns the f0(600) and a number of light, unflavored scalar mesons, in order to put forth a theoretical formula for the widths of the ?(548), the ?'(958), and the ?(1475) mesons. Each of the mentioned widths are seen to be predicted essentially exactly by the above-mentioned "hybrid model" in terms of the number, N, of "vacuum shock base balls" extant along the radius of the assumed spherical collection of same making up the relevant scalar meson, from the center of the meson to its perimeter, in accord with the CTMM. What we find remarkable about the result mentioned immediately above is that, though the width of the ?(1475) is about 67000 times that of the ?(548) and about 400 times that of the ?'(958), one fairly simple function of N serves to provide a match to experiment in each of the three cases considered. As the CTMM has, essentially, as its basis the assumed existence of the Dirac Sea, and as the GEM is founded upon well-established principles of Quantum Electrodynamics, arguments are made in the final section of the present work aimed towards the reinstitution of the idea of the Dirac Sea in the thinking about and understanding of certain phenomena in high energy physics.
Keywords: Gluon Emission Model, ?-series Mesons, Dirac Sea, Base Balls, Chaos Theory Mapping Model.
Using a previously developed ion flux model that included the affects of ion channel proteins embedded in the gramicidin ion channel, we derived the equations for the rate of change in concentration and voltage with respect to time. Discrete forms of the continuous time derivative equations were used to generate ion concentration and membrane voltage transients with respect to time. Phase plots illustrate the voltage-concentration behavior through the ionic channels. Our model provides a basis for investigating the electrostatic influence that ion channel proteins have on ion flux and membrane voltage.